Joint Replacement

What is total joint replacement?

An arthritic or damaged joint is removed and replaced with an artificial joint, called a prosthesis.

What is a joint?

A joint is formed at the ends of two or more bones that are connected by thick tissues. For example, the knee joint is formed by the lower leg bone (tibia and fibula) and the thighbone (femur). The hip is a ball and socket joint, formed by the upper end of the femur (the ball), and a part of the pelvis, called the acetabulum (the socket).

The bone ends of a joint are covered with a smooth layer called cartilage. Normal cartilage allows nearly frictionless and pain-free movement. When the cartilage is damaged or diseased by arthritis, joints become stiff and painful. Every joint is enclosed by a fibrous tissue envelope or a capsule with a smooth tissue lining, called the synovium. The synovium produces fluid that reduces friction and wear in a joint.